Myotonia in Dogs? Fainting Goat Syndrome???

Discussion in 'Working and Companion Animals' started by Little Quacker in OR, Jun 25, 2006.

  1. Little Quacker in OR

    Little Quacker in OR Well-Known Member

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    Hi everyone. Having problems getting and staying on the web so I'll try and be brief as I can. I would like to know if any of you have experienced "Myotonia" (muscle stiffness disease) in your
    Australian Cattle Dogs! I understand it is also found in other breeds but don't know how widespread it is. There is a blood test for this syndrome in ACD's now. There has been one for Miniature Schnauzers for awhile but we are told that the mutation inheritance in that breed is different so although there is a blood test for it, this Miniature Schnauzer test does
    not detect the Australian Cattle Dog mutation. Heavily muscled dogs who become stiff after exercise and may become stiff legged and maybe even topple over would be suspects for this syndrome. I can see that this problem could be diagnosed as epilepsy or even a back injury or spinal weakness.

    Previously I had only heard of this syndrome in Tennesse Fainting Goats. Had NO idea it was found in canines and in Cattle Dogs! Also, the only cases I have heard about are from Canada, so you nice people up north, if you would check this out that would be great!

    The Ontario Veterinary College at the University of Guelph in Ontario have been investigating this syndrome in a Cattle Dog from Central Ontario. I gather but do not know for sure that it is recessive? IF so, that would mean that only one gene from each parent would have to be transmitted to the pups for them to have it too. And of course this also means that an individual can carry the gene and not show any signs. OY VEY!

    To me, as I do not have Fainting Goats, the symptoms do sound the same in both species. I hope some of you with these cute goats will chime in here, thus the reason for posting this on three forums, the Pet Forum, Goat Forum and the Homesteading Forum. As far as I know the typical signs are the stiffness in the muscles when excitement is felt and then they sieze up and sometimes the animal falls over. Then, they slowly relax and seem fine..

    The Guelph researchers have developed a rapid blood test for the Australian
    Cattle Dog mutation that can accurately detect both affected and carrier
    animals. I understand that the test will be available shortly from the Animal Health Laboratory
    at the University of Guelph. Instructions for blood collection and submission,
    and testing fees, will be available on the website of the Animal Health
    Laboratory, Guelph (see below) in the near future.

    For more information please contact:

    Prof. Brad Hanna, DVM, PhD
    Department of Biomedical Sciences
    Ontario Veterinary College
    University of Guelph
    Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada
    Tel: 519-824-4120 x54534
    FAX: 519-767-1450
    bhanna@uoguelph.ca
    <http://us.f310.mail.yahoo.com/ym/Compose?To=bhanna@uoguelph.ca&YY=57975&y5beta=yes&y5beta=yes&order=down&sort=date&pos=0>

    Animal Health Laboratory
    University of Guelph
    Bldg. 49, McIntosh Lane
    Guelph Ontario N1G 2W1
    Fax: 519-821-8072
    Telephone: 519-824-4120 ext 54502
    E-mail: info@ahl.uoguelph.ca
    <http://us.f310.mail.yahoo.com/ym/Compose?To=info@ahl.uoguelph.ca&YY=57975&y5beta=yes&y5beta=yes&order=down&sort=date&pos=0>
    Web-site: www.ahl.uoguelph.ca

    thanks and I hope this gets around!!! LQ
     
  2. Caprice Acres

    Caprice Acres AKA "mygoat" Staff Member Supporter

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    My friend has I belive 11 fainting goats. They're so funny. I can give you some videos of us fainting them if you would like. What they do, is they can run and play but quite often as they run or jump, they stiffen. Only if they are really afraid or aren't on even ground do they fall over all by themselves. They often run funny with stiffened legs but don't fall over or slow down at all.
     

  3. wr

    wr Moderator Staff Member Supporter

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    It sounds a lot like Scottie cramps and very few Scotties are immune from it. I'm fortunate and my current female has never had them but I have found in the past that keeping them active and stimulated seems to keep them at bay. When they do happen, a new owner will often think that they have purchased an eplileptic dog. I don't know if there's a test for Scotties or not but I do fault the breeders who continue to breed lines that they know have the condition, which they claim has no ill effects on the dogs. Perhaps Goldenmom has some information for us.
     
  4. GoldenMom

    GoldenMom Well-Known Member

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    Here's what I found out about Myotonia in general on the Veterinary Information Network. There really wasn't any discussion of mytonia specifically in Cattle dogs.

    Myotonia, Congenital

    Synonyms:
    myoclonia congenita

    Disease description:
    Myotonia is characterized by continued muscle contraction after cessation of the stimulus or voluntary effort. It is a delayed relaxation of the involved muscle associated with persistent repetitive electrical activity. It may result from a defect in either resting chloride or sodium conductance of muscle membranes that leads to post-excitation depolarization of the muscle membrane. Myotonic muscle membranes are considered to be hyperexcitable because muscle activity is disproportionate to a given stimulus.

    There are two forms of myotonia: acquired and congenital. The congenital form is likely inherited in most breeds and clinical signs appear at a young age. Acquired myotonia is secondary to some underlying disease, usually hyperadrenocorticism.

    Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, electromyographic findings, and muscle histopathology. With myotonia, the gait is often stiff and stilted and the proximal limb and neck muscles may appear hypertrophied. Needle electromyography shows spontaneous myotonic discharges. Muscle histopathology will note little to no changes: such as varied myofiber sizes, central nuclei and increased subsarcolemmal nuclei, and fiber necrosis and splitting.

    Disease description in this species:

    Congenital myotonia is an uncommon congenital disease. It is inherited in the chow chow and miniature schnauzer as an autosomal recessive trait and likely inherited in other breeds: West highland white terriers, Labrador retrievers, Irish terriers, Samoyeds, and Staffordshire terriers. Signs are usually evident before 1 year of age and consist of a stiff and stilted gait and proximal limb muscle hypertrophy with distal limb atrophy. Stiffness may be noted after rest and often improves with exercise. Signs may be worse in cold weather. Muscle spasms or prolonged 'dimpling' can often be observed when a muscle belly is percussed or tapped gently with a percussion hammer. Dyspnea, dysphagia, and regurgitation are sometimes also observed.

    Affected miniature Schnauzers may show characteristic muscle dimpling on percussion as early as 6 weeks of age. The tongue and proximal limb muscles are hypertrophied. Craniofacial abnormalities,described as a beak shape to the jaw, have been identified some affected pups but their relationship to congenital myotonia is not known. Stiffness seems to worsen with exercise, rather than improve with exercise in this breed. Muscle morphology has been unremarkable. In this breed, the mutant skeletal muscle chloride channel (CIC-1) allele has been identified and a PCR-based enzyme digestion DNA test has been developed. Breeding dogs can be tested to help limit the spread of the disease in this breed. In Canada, contact HealthGene at Phone number: (416) 658-2040 or visit their web site at:
    # http://www.healthgene.com/scripts/test.asp?code=C124
    In the United States, contact The University of Pennsylvannia, School of Veterinary Medicine, Section of Genetics, Philadelphia, PA, or visit the web site for more information:
    # http://www.vet.upenn.edu/departments/csp/medicalgenetics/services/deublerlab.html#

    Etiology:
    Genetic, hereditary
    Herbicides
    Hyperadrenocorticism

    Breed predilection:
    Chow chow
    Cocker spaniel
    Golden retriever
    Irish terrier
    Miniature schnauzer
    Pit bull terrier
    Samoyed
    Staffordshire terrier
    West highland white terrier

    Age predilection:

    Juvenile

    Clinical findings:
    AFEBRILE
    ANOREXIA
    ATAXIA, INCOORDINATION
    Cachexia
    Cervical rigidity
    Collapse
    Coma, unconsciousness
    Dysphagia
    DYSPNEA
    Exercise intolerant or reluctant to move
    Forelimb abduction
    Forelimb lameness
    GAIT ABNORMAL
    Gait choppy
    Genu valgum, 'knock-kneed'
    Hindlimb lameness
    Hyperpnea
    Hyperreflexia
    Hyperventilation, tachypnea
    Jaw unable to open
    LAMENESS
    Malaise
    MUSCLE ATROPHY, WASTING
    Muscle dimpling
    Muscle hypertrophy
    Proprioception decreased
    REGURGITATION
    Tarsal hyperextension
    Walking difficulty
    WEAKNESS

    Treatment/Management/Prevention:
    SPECIFIC
    1) For the congenital form, some decrease in muscle spasms might be achieved with one of the following:
    a)Procainamide: 1 mg/kg PO bid:
    b)Quinidine: 6-10 mg/kg PO tid-qid:
    c)Phenytoin: 15-40 mg/kg PO tid:

    SUPPORTIVE
    1) Curtail excessive exercise.
    2) Avoid cold.
    3) Be careful with anesthesia induction and recovery as there is possible risk of respiratory obstruction owing to adduction of vocal cords or regurgitation.

    Preventive Measures:

    1) Discourage breeding of affected dogs.
    2) Do not repeat dam-sire breedings that resulted in affected offspring.

    Differential Diagnosis:
    Myopathies
    Arthritis

    References:
    1) Vite CH: Myotonia and disorders of altered muscle cell membrane excitability. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002 Vol 32 (1) pp. 169-187.
    2) Kortz G: Canine myotonia. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 1989 Vol 4 (2) pp. 141-146.
    3) Hill SL, Shelton GD, Lenehan TM: Myotonia in a cocker spaniel. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1995 Vol 31 (6) pp. 506-509.
    4) Vite CH, Cozzi F, Rich M, et al: Myotonic myopathy in a miniature Schnauzer - Case report and data suggesting abnormal chloride conductance across the muscle membrane. J Vet Int Med 1998 Vol 12 pp. 394-397.
    5) Vite CH, Melniczek J, Patterson D, Giger U: Congenital myotonic myopathy in the miniature schnauzer: an autosomal recessive trait. J Hered 1999 Vol 90 (5) pp. 578-580.
    6) Gracis M, Keith D, Vite CH: Dental and craniofacial findings in eight miniature schnauzer dogs affected by myotonia congenita: preliminary results. J Vet Dent 2000 Vol 17 (3) pp. 119-127.
    7) Bhalerao DP, Rajpurohit Y, Vite CH, Giger U: Detection of a genetic mutation for myotonia congenita among Miniature Schnauzers and identification of a common carrier ancestor. Am J Vet Res 2002 Vol 63 (10) pp. 1443-7.
    8) Smith BF, Braund KG, Steiss JE, et al: Possible adult onset myotonic dystrophy in a boxer. J Vet Int Med 1998 Vol 12 pp. 120.
     
  5. PattyG

    PattyG New Member

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    very embarrassing, narcoleptics may try to suppress their emotions or shun social situations.
    I believe there is also a certain ancestry line in German Shepard’s that have this gene also but I can't remember what it is at the moment

    In the August 6 issue of Cell (*Mignot, E., et al. "The Sleep Disorder Canine Narcolepsy Is Caused by a Mutation in the Hypocretin (Orexin) Receptor 2 Gene." Cell, August 6, 1999.), Mignot and his colleagues report locating two defective versions of the narcolepsy gene, one in Doberman pinschers, the other in Labrador retrievers. The gene, known as hypocretin receptor 2, codes for a protein that juts out from the surface of brain cells and that functions as an antenna, allowing the cell to receive messages - transmitted via small molecules called hypocretins - from other cells. The defective versions of the gene encode proteins that cannot recognize these messages, in effect cutting the cell off from essential directives, including perhaps messages that promote wakefulness.
     
  6. PattyG

    PattyG New Member

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    oops didn't mean to have that first line in here.
    I believe there is also a certain ancestry line in German Shepard’s that have this gene also but I can't remember what it is at the moment

    In the August 6 issue of Cell (*Mignot, E., et al. "The Sleep Disorder Canine Narcolepsy Is Caused by a Mutation in the Hypocretin (Orexin) Receptor 2 Gene." Cell, August 6, 1999.), Mignot and his colleagues report locating two defective versions of the narcolepsy gene, one in Doberman pinschers, the other in Labrador retrievers. The gene, known as hypocretin receptor 2, codes for a protein that juts out from the surface of brain cells and that functions as an antenna, allowing the cell to receive messages - transmitted via small molecules called hypocretins - from other cells. The defective versions of the gene encode proteins that cannot recognize these messages, in effect cutting the cell off from essential directives, including perhaps messages that promote wakefulness.
     
  7. Little Quacker in OR

    Little Quacker in OR Well-Known Member

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    Thanks Golden Mom! Appreciate it!

    Narcolepsy ? What? Don't remember asking about that but OK. LOL

    LQ