I'm learning that there is much more to learn. I bought this place in 2000 and moved in in 2001. In December of 2001 the water ran over both pond dams. For the lower dam, the culvert got plugged. For the upper dam, the culvert was too shallow and frost heave (plus a tree growing on the dam) raised the culvert so that the intake side ended up higher than the dam. Got the trees off of the dams. Got a system to keep the lower culvert clear. Made both dams a little higher, including putting a little more dirt over the upper culvert so it won't be so susceptable to frost heave. So now I'm trying to wrap my head around long term solutions. During the summer and early fall, the flow through the upper pond is a dribble at best. Well, it would be if the pond didn't leak (another issue I'm working on). During the winter and spring, there's a pretty good flow. Yet another issue ... Getting air in the water for fish. I bought some trout and put them in the lower pond in 2001. They did great until summer rolled around, the creek went underwater and they ran out of air. So for the second pond, I'm thinking that it would be good to get the run off from the upper pond to land in the pond from the height of the water level in the upper pond. Maybe ten feet or so. This should provide good aeration and since it isn't running down any slopes - reduce erosion. Getting complicated? So if most of the culvert is under the frost line (18 to 36 inches depending on who you talk to) it will stay put, right? I have lots of trees that need to be thinned. I'm thinking of rigging up a wooden sluice (is that the right word?) to carry the water from the culvert to the middle of the second pond. Will this work? Or am I about to venture into another dumb idea?