An excert from the book, The Ohio Frontier, Crucible of the Old Northwest 1720-1830 by R. Douglas Hurt "In 1796, Israel and Rufus Putnam brought a wagonload of Roxbury Russetts and some forty or fifty other apple varieties from Connecticut. These trees provided the basis for the Putnam nursery, near the Muskingum River a few miles north of Marietta. This nursery was the first west of the Alleghenies, and it supplied farmers with apple trees until 1821. Other settlers frequently brought apple seeds and young trees to remind them of their former homes and to furnish beauty shade, food and drink on their new lands. As a result most apple varieties in Ohio during the early 19th century reflected migration patterns. In the Western Reserve, New England Varieties dominated the orchards, while PA and MD varieties prevailed to the south. In time other varieties from New Jersey, New York and Virginia--Early June, Carolina Red, Pryor's Red, Fall Queen, Milan-came to Ohio giving the state a host of apples of varying size, shape and color. Ohioans who ocassionaly returned to the east for business or pleasure, also brought back shoots of the best varieties. Grafts of these sicons helped expand Ohio's apple orchards before enough nurseries were established to meet the demand." "Most apple orchards on the Ohio frontier, however grew from seedling trees. Grafting and budding which guarantee the reproduction of a specific variety, were not unknown, but most farmers did not understand the process or were unable to aquire the appropriate grafts for their rootstocks. As a result most of the apple production was only fit for drinking. This suited Ohio farmers who raised apples primarily for cider-the cooking and keeping quanties were of secondary importance. Cider offered an alternative to water as a thirst quenching beverage. When fermented into hard cider or made into apple brandy commonly called "apple jack" or "Jersey lightning", it provided a potent and salable libation. Consequently most farms had cider presses and few apples were wasted. Those unsuitable for cider, immediate eating, storage or vinegar were fed to the livestock."