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Cattle For Those Who Like To Have A Cow.


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  #41  
Old 03/14/09, 03:03 PM
 
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topside I couldn't agree more! I bought a 5 nipple version of the same bucket (I bought 2 calves) and I LOVE IT!!! Best thing ever invented for feeding calves. The single nipple buckets you can get at the feed store are no where near the quality of a Milk Bar!
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  #42  
Old 03/14/09, 06:35 PM
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The milk bar has eliminated alot of pneumonia I was seeing. With the valve buckets they would asperate alot
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  #43  
Old 03/25/09, 01:49 PM
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What is calf diphtheria?
There are two forms of calf diphtheria. The most common is an acute oral (mouth) infection, usually seen in calves less than 3 months old. The second form is usually seen in older calves and affects the larynx (or voice-box), Both forms are caused by the bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum, which also causes foul-in-the foot and liver abscesses in older cattle.

Clinical Signs
Oral form
Initial presenting sign may just be a swollen cheek
Calf may be otherwise bright and active with no temperature
Examination of the inside of the mouth shows a foul-smelling ulceration and swelling of the cheek
Temperature may be normal at the start
If untreated more signs develop:
High temperature
Coughing
Loss of appetite and depression
Difficulty breathing, chewing and swallowing
Swollen pharyngeal region
Deep ulcers on the tongue, palate, and inside of cheeks
Pneumonia

Usually only a few calves in a batch are infected though outbreaks can occur where hygiene is poor

Laryngeal form:
Coughing : Moist and painful
High temperature
Loss of appetite and depression
Difficult breathing, chewing and swallowing
Pneumonia
Diagnosis
The diagnosis of calf diphtheria is usually based on the clinical signs.
For one-off cases rule out other problems such as BVD and foreign bodies by getting your vet to do a thorough oral
examination
Bacteriology can be also useful.
A post-mortem can confirm the ulcerative nature of the disease, particularly in calves with the laryngeal form
Treatment
Early prompt treatment is important as early treatment is much more effective
Separate the infected animals and isolate them
Antibiotics and pain killers are effective in most cases
The laryngeal form is much more resistant to treatment. Get veterinary advice
Prevention
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a normal inhabitant of cattle intestines and the environment. Under unhygienic conditions, infection may be spread on feeding troughs and dirty milk buckets. Some of the contributory factors for occurrence of this disease include abrasions in the oral mucosa (such as those from erupting molar teeth), poor nutrition and the presence of other diseases present in young calves.

If animals are closely confined, the spread of this infectious disease can be prevented by thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting of all calf feeders. Young calves must be examined daily to identify early stages of the disease.
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  #44  
Old 03/26/09, 09:32 AM
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We bought 5 bucket babies at once from the auction here in West. Very sad little babies. We bought the colustrum from the feed store but if they don't get it within 24 hours it's just bad news. Two died from scours/dehydration within a week. The other three made it to about 3 months but we couldn't get our herd of angus to accept them so the babies just made their own herd. Over the next month or so two of them dissappeared. We couldn't keep them out of the oat field and they had the scours all the time. We think the coyotes finally got the two weaker ones. We ended up with one baby that made it to market weight so we could sell him. We paid 65 dollars for 5 calves plus milk, bottles, medicated feeds, etc. and we made right at 500 from him when we sold him. I figure we might have broke even by the time we wrote off the deceased ones on our taxes. Bottle babies are not for the faint hearted, the busy or the broke! Please consider it very carefully.
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  #45  
Old 03/29/09, 09:12 AM
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Lump Jaw

Tips on handling two types of lump jaw in cattle.

Bacteria are often present in the mouth of cattle. As a result, anything puncturing the mouth tissue can open the way for infection, which can lead to "lump jaw."

According to Salmon, ID, veterinarian Robert Cope, there are two kinds of lump jaw. Each is caused by two different types of bacteria and require different treatment.

The most common are soft tissue infections that are relatively easy to treat. Sometimes, these abscesses break and drain on their own. Usually, however, they must be lanced, drained and disinfected before they'll heal properly.

Another type of lump jaw is caused by infection in the bone, and it's difficult to halt, Cope says. Usually, it results in having to sell or butcher the animal.

Bony lump jaw tends to occur in two- to three-year-old cattle, says Pete South, a retired veterinarian and professor at University of Idaho.

A Common Beginning Both forms of lump jaw actually begin in the same manner, says Cope. A break in the tissue surface allows bacteria to enter - which can happen if a cow eats or chews on a sharp stick or even a pointed blade of stiff grass. A sharp seed may poke into the side of the mouth. Ulcers caused by BVD virus can open the way for bacteria, which can then enter from feed or soil.

Ingesting dirt can also play a part, introducing certain bacteria that can begin an infection if there's a break in the tissues.

The Soft Tissue Variety The most common form of lump jaw is caused by Actinobacillus bacteria. It occurs in the soft tissues, forming an abscess, often along the lower jaw.

"Actinobacillus is a gram-negative bacteria routinely present in soil," says Cope. "Once the bacteria enter the mouth tissues they immediately begin to grow and stimulate an inflammatory response from the cow, resulting in formation of an abscess."

Treating with an injectable antibiotic generally isn't useful, Cope says. The abscess is a pocket of infection surrounded by a relatively thick wall of connective tissue. This wall prevents the infection from spreading through the body, but also keeps antibiotics in the blood stream from reaching the infective organism.

The best treatment is to lance the abscess and flush it out with strong (7%) iodine, he says. One or two treatments will usually suffice to cure the problem. He recommends waiting until the infection comes to a head with a soft spot in the lump. If you lance it too early, it will not yet have formed a drainable pus pocket.

The lump may be either hard or soft, but moves if pressed firmly with your hand, he says. It's not attached to the bone. Inserting a needle (16 ga. or larger) into the lump is another diagnostic check. If it's an abscess, pus will come out the needle or be present in the needle when you remove it.

If pus is present, lance the abscess at its lowest point (with scalpel or sharp knife) to allow drainage. After squeezing out the pus, flush the abscess with tincture of iodine (7% solution) to remove the rest.

This type of abscess usually heals quickly once it's opened and drained, unless the drain hole seals over before all infection is out. Then, it must be opened and flushed again.

Bony Lump Jaw Another bacteria, Actinomyces bovis (a gram-positive bacteria that also lives in soil), can infect the mouth and cause bony lump jaw. The condition is called Actinomycosis.

The bacteria enters a mouth wound similar to Actinobacillus, says Cope, but infects the bone if the tissue break is deep. This infection may also become established through the dental sockets where the teeth are set into the jaw, adds South. This is why the condition is common in young cattle whose permanent teeth are coming in. Two-year-olds are prime candidates.

The infection sets in the jawbone, creating a painless bony enlargement, usually at the level of the central molars. Some enlarge swiftly within weeks, while others grow slowly over months.

The bony swellings are very hard. They're also immobile because they're part of the bone. In later stages, the area may be painful and interfere with chewing.

This type of lump may break through the skin eventually and discharge through one or more openings, oozing a little pus or some sticky honey-like fluid containing tiny hard yellow granules, South says.

Lancing is of no value, since the lump is composed of infected bone and can't be drained. Attempting to drain this lesion can be harmful because opening this area to the outside may allow other disease organisms to enter, resulting in further secondary infection, South adds.

South says teeth in the affected jawbone of a bony lump may become misaligned, making chewing painful and thus causing weight loss.

In severe cases, the infection spreads to softer tissues and involves the muscles and lining of the throat. Extensive swelling can interfere with breathing. An animal may become so thin that humane destruction is necessary, though it may take a year or more to get this bad. If the infection spreads to the esophagus and stomach, digestion becomes impaired, causing diarrhea (passing undigested food particles on through) or bloat, says South.

Treatment Is Difficult This bony lump is easy to diagnose but hard to treat. Since it's a bone infection, "it must be treated from the inside out, via the bloodstream that serves the bone," says Cope. The usual treatment is to put sodium iodide into the jugular vein - a treatment that may need repeating in 10 days.

"Sodium iodide is merely iodine in a salt form, allowing us to get the iodine to the site of the infection via the bloodstream," says Cope.

This treatment isn't always successful in halting the bone infection, however. The animal may eventually have to be culled; the lump may stop growing for awhile and you might get one or two more calves from the cow, then it starts again.

Iodides given intravenously may halt the infection if given early (before the lump gets large) but many cases are stubborn, says Cope. Some lumps reduce a little in size once infection is stopped, but never go away completely.

The IV injections must be given carefully and slowly or the animal will go into shock. If you're not experienced in giving IVs, have your vet do it.

Treatment And Abortion When treating either type of lump, remember that both iodine and the iodide solution can cause abortion, Cope says.

"We often try to postpone treatment of bony lump jaw during late pregnancy, hoping to save both the cow and calf. But if the cow is failing or not due to calve for some time, we'll usually treat and take our chances with the possibility of abortion," he says.

In the case of soft-tissue abscesses in pregnant females, Cope recommends flushing with a mix of nolvasan and water.

You can also use "green wonder," says Heidi Smith, a veterinarian in Terrebonne, OR. This recipe originated at Purdue University, she says, and is a mix of nolvasan and water, furacin solution and hydrogen peroxide (1/6 nolvasan, 1/6 water, 1/3 furacin, and 1/3 hydrogen peroxide).

If a cow is pregnant, play it safe and use this type of flushing solution instead of iodine, Smith says. The mix is effective for abscesses or cleaning dirty wounds, she says, because "the peroxide's foaming action carries the disinfectant into all the nooks and crannies of the wound or abscess."
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  #46  
Old 05/25/09, 11:32 AM
 
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i have been feeding all my calves milk replacer since i got them (4-6 days old)

i get the 50lb bag for $37 out the door a bag (i think its 16% fat 20% protien)

and none of mine had really loose poop it has always been pretty solid

and they were all fed two 2qt bottles twice a day since i have got them

ya some people will say thats too much but i think getting them on a good start helps them alot more than just giving them one bottle twice a day

and i always have 2nd cutting hay, grain and fresh water replaced every night in there with all the calves

also get them on the bucket as soon as you can saves time and has them learn to drink the water faster

now i had chickens in with all the calves and they showed them how to drink out of the bucket and eat the grain i guess cause i seen them drinking water out of the bucket and at least starting on eatting the grain so i put a bucket in there that night and they drank it right down

ya buckets with nipples on them saves time
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  #47  
Old 06/16/09, 03:45 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Slev View Post
Well, one thing to consider when picking up a bottle calf at an auction is; if you're looking for a female, reconsider. A lot of times a dairy farmer will bring in a "freemartin" Something to look for would be if there are any other bucket calves in the sale barn that looks to be the same age and breed, and if they are numbered, see if the number runs consecutive, (one above or below) that calf's number, it would be a good bet that she was born a twin and her brother is in there with her. (One time I was walking in the pens and overheard the farmer who brought one in that he learned long ago to hold one back till the next week, that way people won't see them together and figure out she may be a freemartin.)

The other tip would be to see if the auction house offers a vaccination shot program. Ours does, and they really promote it. From what I've seen it seems to be a good program, with best interests to raising a healthy animal. Here's a link, http://www.greenvillelivestockauctio...cc-program.asp

I was noticing that you are calling a "twin calf" a "freemartin". Is that correct? If so, why are farmers calling it that, and why do they want to keep them apart?

Thanks so much,
Danll
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  #48  
Old 06/16/09, 03:49 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by danll View Post
I was noticing that you are calling a "twin calf" a "freemartin". Is that correct? If so, why are farmers calling it that, and why do they want to keep them apart?

Thanks so much,
Danll
Heifers that are twins with a bull, are *usually* sterile, only good for butcher. These are called freemartins.
A less-than-honest farmer would bring in a heifer he knew was a twin to a bull and by not telling anyone, hope to get full heifer price for her, though she is actually not worth more than a bull calf.
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  #49  
Old 07/12/09, 03:05 PM
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calf refusing to take bottle

hello and i hope someone here can help. we got another bull calf on friday and they say he's about 3 weeks old. his mom was a first time and she had like no milk when we went there to get him. we had to catch them in the field and grab him. he is eating calf feed and drinking water as well as yelling at the top of his lungs when he sees us coming to feed. He will NOT take a bottle and i have tried everything. He won't take a bottle with anything at all in it and isn't really drinking any milk at all. He is bright alert and very fiesty (no scours yet) just really small. He is a angus/brangus cross and about 100 lbs. I'm just worried without the milk he may not be getting what he needs and i'm hoping someone here might have a suggestion. We have left his milk in a bucket and while we haven't seen him eat it it is empty and he kicks it around. Any ideas are helpful but until then we'll just keep doing what we are doing.
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  #50  
Old 07/12/09, 05:23 PM
 
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OK, even though they may have been starving, most calves do not transition easily to the bottle. The milk tastes different, and most nipples do not resemble or feel like a cows teat. If you are very worried about him, you could tube him, but I don't reccomend that if you want to get him onto a bottle. And at this age, yes, he does still need milk.

It sounds like he may already be drinking his milk, if this is the case, then you are good to go, don't worry about getting him to suck a bottle. But, first you have to make sure he is actually drinking it and not just spilling it out onto the ground. Or put it somewhere that he cannot spill it. You need to watch what he does from a distance, so he is not distracted by you. If he is drinking it, he will already have learned what is in the bucket and you shouldn't have to watch long before he drinks. I'd actually be surprised if he is drinking it, but stranger things have happened.

Here is how I get an older calf onto the bottle. First off, back him into a corner, then straddle his shoulders, squeezing his neck between your legs, and facing forward. Now, you bend over his head, and stick the nipple into his mouth. If you can find them the soft rubber/latex nipples that fit onto a pop bottle work the best or a lamb nipple will work too. Once the nipple is in his mouth, wrap your hand/s around his muzzle so he can't spit it out, and so you can work his mouth on it for him. Having a nipple with an x cut into it works better than one that only has holes. Squeeze his mouth in a way that imitates him sucking, you won't be exact, but close counts here. Tip his head up (kinda like you are hugging him), so he pretty much has to swallow, and sooner or later the little light bulb should come on. Some calves are easy, some are hard, and you will run into some that won't have anything to do with a bottle at all.
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  #51  
Old 07/12/09, 09:22 PM
 
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He might still take a bottle, sometimes it can take them several days to take the bottle. He also might not have been getting much milk if any and with access to starter feed just not missing it. If he is eating starter feed good, hopefully a good quality one with milk products in it, he should be all right.
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  #52  
Old 07/13/09, 05:57 AM
 
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Try putting his milk in a pail to drink . He is already drinking water from a pail .


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  #53  
Old 07/13/09, 06:40 AM
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well he is eating quite a bit of starter feed and we started added some of his milk to it. After about 4 hours yesterday he flat out refuses a bottle with anything even water in it. he sucks for a little bit then quits. we are going to keep trying and he as far as we can tell isn't drinking much if any milk out of the pail. He is strong as an ox , no temp, wet nose, eats hay and grass, and acts just like a little cow. No scours either at this point. Like i said before his mom had like no milk so maybe he's used to it. The guy we got him from wasn't even sure how old he was but swears he's atleast 3 maybe even 4 monthes old. Yesterday afternoon we let him out with the older calfs just about 3monthes old and totally weaned and he seemed happier. We'll just keep trying i guess.
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  #54  
Old 07/13/09, 08:21 AM
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Sounds like he's 3-4 months old, not 3-4 weeks old. Don't bother feeding him any milk he's ready for your pasture. What you need to do find out is he is 4 weeks or 4 months old. The way you describe his eating habits, well it my guess that he's 4 months old, and stronger than you think,,huh,,,..topside
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  #55  
Old 07/13/09, 10:01 AM
 
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If he's 3-4 months old, he is more than old enough not to need any milk. 3-4 weeks he still needs milk. There is a big difference.....
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  #56  
Old 07/13/09, 07:09 PM
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yeah so needless to say we don't know how old he is.. however he broke out and went to hang out with our holsteins (who are just about 3 monthes old) and seems to made himself at home. My worry is that he is so small and at first they said like 3 weeks so.. we figure as long as he's eating drinking and playing he's fine. i'll try to post a picture of him so you guys can see.
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  #57  
Old 08/10/09, 03:24 PM
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looking for bottle calves

Hello all my name is curt and I am from pocahontas ILLINOIS and have been trying to get my hands on some bull calves in my area and for some reason we can not find any. We really do not want to buy them from the sale barn because they seem to look really sickly. If there is any one who is in the bond county area in illinois. I would really like to but about 6 to 10 of holstein bull calves for about 50 to 100.00 a for each Just got laid off and I have a farm with the right stuff I think I can do this . Thank you stacey_torti2000@yahoo.com or you can contact me at 618-669-2244 or 618-669-2825 And would like them to be about a week old so they no how to suckle .
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  #58  
Old 10/03/09, 02:37 PM
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ATTENTION: Topside1,

I need your advice please. I raised 3 calves (1 jersey and 2 holsteins - all bulls) last winter on jersey milk replacer formula and besides some scours on occasion and pepto bismol and electrolytes into them, they grew into fine calves. However, now I am getting into selling newly-weaned calves and am now using fresh pasteurized whole cows milk from the supermarket (I buy it by the gallons/cart loads, LOL) and I had great results with the jersey/holstein cross bull calf I just weaned, however I now bought 2 - 2 week old? holstein calves (1 is a heifer, 1 is a bull) and the heifer has a really watery stool as of yesterday. I gave her pepto and electrolytes and she eats well on her own. This morning she was fighting for first in line to drink her breakfast. Then she went and laid down and then stood up later and went the watery poo again. I will see how she acts tonight for the nitetime feeding.
The bull calf has liquid poo too but not quite as watery as hers. I have a buyer for her that I am supposed to deliver her to tommorrow (sunday) and the lady is going to be finishing bottle-feeding her (even though normally I sell weaned calves). I havent mentioned to her yet the diarrhea, and am not sure how to email her about it (what to say). Should I even be selling the calf while she has the diarrhea - even though she has a good appetite?
Also I have another question: how much to feed the calves from newborns to about 4 weeks old or so? since I am using the fresh store-bought milk, I dont know if I am overfeeding or what?
They are about 2 to 3 weeks old and they are getting a total of about 10 pints of milk EACH per day (1 and 1/4 gallons per day).
is this too much or not enough?
I'd truly appreciate any and all help from you.
I have to attend the auction (sale barn) on monday as I have an order from one person for the heifer calf for sunday and I have the bull calf already reserved for a man that also wants 7 heifer calves from me (weaned ones only). He has already sent in his deposit and he knows I am short the 7 heifer calves, so he is waiting for me to get them and wean them (any I get that arent weaned already).
so......a waiting list......and I hope I am not in over my head.
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  #59  
Old 10/03/09, 04:10 PM
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That's a lot of info to digest Missy...Here's what I can tell you @ 3.00 a gallon whole milk is definitely cutting into your profit margin. Only guessing $90 per month so $180 come weaning age. Your choice of course but consider 100% milk, milk replacer. It's about 50-60 dollars a bag, and one bag is sometimes all you need. Anyway that's one point to consider. I rarely sell a un-weaned calf, mainly because they are so easy to kill if the buyer is not experienced. I've had two die in the past four years something you sure want to avoid. Jersey/Holstein calves will only be fed 2 pints week one, increase slowly to 3 pints by week 3. Around a month old I may or may not boost up to 4 pints. Yes in my opinion you are over-feeding. I would not sell a scouring calf, the runs yes scours no...Once again rarely do I sell a un-weaned calf. Raising calves is a tricky business, lots to learn.
Hope some of my advice helps...Topside
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  #60  
Old 10/03/09, 09:04 PM
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Thank you soooo much Topside, and of course....all advice is helpful in some way or another
One more statement: I pay $2.18 to $2.50 per each Gallon of milk, so not as bad as $3. a gallon, however, when I used jersey milk replacer powder on my first 3 calves last winter, I paid about $84. for a 50 pound bag of the milk replacer....and the directions said give 1 bottle (4 pints) per feeding twice daily.....if I remember correctly. I think I am going to go back to the formula powder, maybe its cheaper?

another question if I may:
When you feed the 3 pints, Do you feed the 3 pints PER DAY or 3 pints PER FEEDING twice daily?

thank you.

-Theresa
(missymoo)

(I did notice that the calves are helping themselves to the water buckets in their pen - in between feedings)
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